今日は"Putin declares annexation of occupied Ukraine lands is ‘forever’"と言う記事からです。

defyは復習です、レベル5、英検2級以上、TOEIC® L&Rスコア600点以上の単語です。





difi (赤字がアクセント)



Etymology Dictionaryによれば、from Old French defier, desfier "to challenge, defy, provoke; renounce (a belief), repudiate (a vow, etc.)," from Vulgar Latin *disfidare "renounce one's faith" (in Medieval Latin diffidare), from Latin dis- "away" (see dis-) + fidus "faithful". By 1670s as "dare (someone) to do something (that the challenger believes cannot or will not be done)."です。
古フランス語の defierやdesfier、俗ラテン語の*disfidareが由来のようです。dis-「離れて」+fidareはfidusの事で「忠実、信頼」です。「忠実から遠ざかる」という事なので「逆らう」と言う事でしょう。


Oxford Learner's Dictionariesによれば以下です。

(1) defy somebody/something:
to refuse to obey or show respect for somebody in authority, a law, a rule, etc.

(2) defy belief, explanation, description, etc.:
to be impossible or almost impossible to believe, explain, describe, etc.
ex1- a political move that defies explanation
ex2- The beauty of the scene defies description.
ex3- His face was so odd that it defies description.
(3) defy something:
to successfully resist something to a very unusual degree


President Vladimir Putin vowed Russia’s annexation of four occupied regions in Ukraine is irreversible as he formalized Europe’s biggest land grab since World War II, defying efforts by Kyiv, backed by the U.S. and its allies, to recapture its lost territory. *1


プーチン大統領は、第二次世界大戦以来、ヨーロッパ最大の土地収奪を正当化し、失われた領土を奪還しようとする米国とその同盟国の支援を受けたウクライナに逆らい、ロシアによるウクライナの 4 つの占領地域の併合は不可逆的であると誓った。


annexationは、the act of taking control of a country, region, etc, especially by forceです。





*1:The Japan Times 2022/9/30の記事